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Wednesday, December 8, 2010

Aktiviti bermain dengan anak-anak

Info di bawah saya dapat dari web

Aktiviti bersama anak-anak dapat mempengaruhi perkembangan akal dan fizikal mereka. Berikut adalah aktiviti mudah yang boleh dicontohi (dah biasa diamal oleh ibu2 kita dulu pun) dan mempunyai kesan tersendiri:

Here are a few things to keep in mind when playing:
1.The following activities require parental interaction and supervision.
2.Do these activities only when your child is alert and rested; if he is bored, tired or hungry, postpone doing them, or resume them later on when you think he is more receptive.
3.Turn off any background noise which might interfere with his ability to focus.
4.Your child may find some activities boring, and lose interest. When this happens, give him a new activity or challenge.
5.Work with your child everyday for half an hour, and don't worry if you miss a day or two!
6.Feel free to change the activities to suit your child - or better yet, create some of your own fun games!
7.Don't forget to have fun!

Where's Mommy? Where's Daddy?
Age Range: Newborn to 6 months
Targeted Skill Set(s): auditory discrimination skills.

At this stage in development, your baby will only be able to respond to loud noises, and her brain will start fine-tuning her hearing - linking hearing with visual activities. Eventually, she will learn that certain objects make certain sounds.

Place your baby in her crib lying on her back. Stand at the side of the crib and keep calling her name.
After a while, your baby will soon "localize" and turn her head and body towards the sound. Move to the other side and call her name again until she turns her attention towards you. Repeat this four or five times.

Age Range: 3 months to 6 months
Targeted Skill Set(s): memory, auditory discrimination, concept of cause and effect

Peek-a-boo type activities sharpen your baby's hearing by teaching her to filter specific sounds from the background noise. It will also improve her understanding of spoken language and strengthen her memory, as well as teach her the concept of cause and effect.
Get your baby's attention by standing by her crib and smiling at her. While she is looking, cover your face with a pillow or cloth (a bright color works best). After a few seconds, uncover your face and say "peek-a-boo" in a high-pitched and animated voice. You can also ask "Where's Mommy?" or "Where's Daddy?" and then reveal your face with "Here's Mommy!" Keep your baby interested by moving the cloth away up, down, left or right and moving to different sides of the crib. Carry on for a few minutes.

UPGRADE: Age range: 6 months to 9 months.

By this age, your baby will be able to actively participate in the activity. Try peek-a-boo again, however do not pull away the pillow or cloth and allow your child to pull it away herself. When your face is revealed, don't forget to say "Here's Mommy!" Your baby will start learning the concept of cause and effect!

Mobile Play
Age Range: Newborn to 6 months
Targeted Skill Set(s): visual discrimination skills, introduction to colors and shapes

Mobiles are great when it comes to helping your baby develop visual-motor skills. Because they move and are mobile, they encourage your baby to keep his focus on moving objects and control the direction of his gaze.
You can buy, or even make your own mobile using several different shapes or objects in bright colors (high-contrast colors such as black, white, red, blue and yellow are easiest for babies to focus on). You can make this more interesting for your baby by moving the mobile (by blowing on it), turning off the lights and shining a light on it or even tying bells onto it to stimulate his auditory senses.

Note: Make sure that when you make your own mobile that all the objects are safely fixed onto the mobile and will not fall.

UPGRADE: Skills set: visual discrimination skills, hand-eye coordination

Using some ribbon, tie one end to an object or a bell on your mobile. On the other end, tie it (gently) on your baby's wrist. This activity will soon teach your child that by moving his arm, he will cause the mobile to move, or to make a sound. When he gets bored of this, untie the ribbon. As your baby gets better at moving the mobile, try to switch to his other wrist or ankles.

Note: Never leave your child unattended during this activity and make sure that he does not get tangled up with the ribbon.

Encouraging Manipulative Play
Age Range: 3 months to 6 months
Targeted Skill Set(s): hand-eye coordination

When your baby is around 3 months old, she will have developed enough
motor skills to play with objects. By allowing her to play with different things,
she will learn to manipulate different objects; learning how they behave.

Place your baby on her stomach on the floor, with 3 or 4 soft objects and toys around her.
Encourage her to reach and play with the toys without helping her to hold objects. Let her explore for around 10 to 15 minutes and then turn her over so she is lying on her back. This will change her perspective of the objects and make things more interesting for her!

Note: Never leave your child unattended during this activity and if she falls asleep on her stomach, immediately turn her over to her back.

Card Game
Age Range: 12 months to 18 months
Targeted Skill Set(s): memory, teaches colors and shapes

This simple card game will help improve and strengthen your child's memory.
It will enhance his ability for recognizing words, letters and numbers.
On each card, draw a circle, but in three different colors (red, blue and yellow). Show him the red circle and say “Red.” Next, show him the yellow circle and say “Yellow.” Put both cards face down and ask him “Where is the red circle?” and then reveal the red card saying, “Here's the red circle!” Reveal the yellow card and say “Here is the yellow circle!” Continue until your baby starts to point towards which card to turn over.

Stop the game before he gets bored! When you child is familiar with the red and yellow circle, you can substitute the blue card in. Keep mixing up the three cards until your child has learned this game.

Upgrade: If your child has mastered the three colors, you can repeat this game by introducing another shape. Select two cards of the same color, but of different shapes to play the same game. As he improves, you can add more shapes or move on to different letters and numbers.

Note: Be patient! Let your child know that it's okay to make a mistake and don't forget to praise him when he gets it right!

Memory Builder
Age Range: 18 months to 5 years
Targeted Skill Set(s): memory and concentration

This activity will greatly develop your child's memory and encourage her to concentrate at the task at hand. For this activity, you can use the same cards from the Card game as described above.

You will need six white cards with squares drawn on them, and these squares need to be in different colors: two red, two blue and two yellow.
Have your child choose a card to reveal, and identify out loud what color it is and then ask her to find another of the same color. If it's the right card, be excited and praise her. If not, say “No, that's green” and allow her to pick again until she finds the right one. When your child understands the game and gets better at it, you can add more cards with more colors or different shapes to make it more challenging for her!

Stacking and Sorting Games
Age Range: 9 months to 2 years
Targeted Skill Set(s): hand-eye coordination, concept of “big” and “small,” teaches child about visual-spatial relationships

These types of games will not only enhance your baby's hand-eye coordination, but will also teach them the concept of “bigger than” and “smaller than”. Start with larger objects that can be stacked, and then move on to smaller objects as he grows older.
  • 9 months - Use the classic rings on a peg. Show him how to stack it from big to small and then allow him to try for himself. Point to the biggest ring and say “big” and the smallest ring and say “small”. Do not worry if he stacks it incorrectly - praise him anyway for trying!

  • 12 months - 14 months - Move on to sets of plastic cups or bowls where they have to be stacked in the a particular order. Start with two or three cups and when he is ready, give him more bowls to stack.

  • 12 months - 18 months - At this point, your child can start to play with simple blocks. You can choose from Lego blocks (ones suitable for 1 year olds) to wooden blocks. These will also help with developing his motor skills. Encourage him to stack them up as high as he can and then count the blocks together.

Crafts Projects
Age Range: 12 months to 3 years
Targeted Skill Set(s): fine motor skills, manual dexterity, teaches understanding of visual spatial relationships.

Put a bunch of cooked peas and sliced carrots (diced small enough so he won't choke on them) in front of him. Show him how to separate the peas from the carrots by picking them out. Encourage him to do the same and count the number of peas and carrots as he picks them out.
Watch your child carefully as he does this activity. Find around 10 colorful and interesting objects like large-sized buttons and placed them inside a container. Empty this in front of your child and ask him to pick up each one and place them back inside. As he drops each one inside, don't forget to count as this will help teach counting skills.

Be careful, some objects can prove to be choking hazards.

Encourage your child to pick up a crayon and draw or scribble! It will help improve the motor skills that are needed to write letters and numbers later on.

Introduce your child to safe and non-toxic modeling clay. It will stimulate motor skills and also encourage him to be creative. It can also teach him about tools and using them to manipulate the clay. You can even use them to teach colors!

Age Range: 3 years to 5 years
Targeted Skill Set(s): computer skills, discrimination skills

This game is a fun way to teach your child about the concepts of similarities
and differences. This activity involves more planning on your part, because you will need to create a picture library for your child. Decide a daily or weekly theme for her (e.g. things that fly) and find images online. Next, save them on your computer and print them out and stick the images on cards.
When you've prepared everything, begin the game by presenting the cards to your child, pronouncing the name each object. You can then ask your child to sort them into groups, such as differentiating things that fly and things that don't. As she gets better, you can move on to more similar things, like species of birds (by size) or types of plants (trees or flowers).

Upgrade: Put together two or three completely different pictures (like a kite and a fishing pole) and ask her to find similarities. It will encourage her to think harder and come up with more creative responses!

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